Flowsheet synthesis including process, and piping and instrumentation diagrams (PFD, P&ID). Synthesis of process design structure, separation systems, and heat-exchange networks. Process design heuristics. Plant capital and operating cost estimation. Use of commercial process simulation software.

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From the optimized design, the feed conditions are reported as followed. The inlet

temperature T0 and pressure P0 of the feed are found to be equal to 350 K and 1000 kPa

respectively. The results obtained from the case study showed that both pressure and

temperature influence the outlet flowrate of species S. The optimal temperature was chosen by

making sure that all species stays in the liquid phase throughout the process. The molar flow

rate of the inlet species B, C and K are respectively 58,000 mol/h, 150,000 mol/h and 45,000

mol/h. The temperature in each reactor is progressively increased throughout the process

while the pressure stays constant (1000kPa). The reactor design system was performed for

non-isothermal and non-isobaric reactions by using Microsoft Excel Visual Basics Editor

(VBA). Keeping the volume of reactor 2 bigger than reactor 1, as well as the volumetric flow

helps to reach the target S flowrate of 50,000 mol/h. The volume of reactor 1 and 2 was

determined to be equal to 15 m3 and 20 m3 respectively. No catalyst was used for this

process. Heat exchangers were used as heating or cooling units, and pumps were used to

increase streams pressure. The reaction being exothermic temperature and pressure control

were monitored. The total material cost of this process was estimated to be equal to $545,000

(USD), considering two plug flow reactor, two heat exchangers and two centrifugal pumps.

This cost was estimated base on the optimized process and considered as the Capital

Expenditures (CapEx) for the synthesis of product S. The material of construction of all

equipment was chosen to be carbon steel because of its high strength and low price. The plant

cost index was found in the literature to be equal to 595.5 supposing that the plant will be

built in the year of 2020. The operating pressure was taken to be the highest pressure of the

stream attached to equipment

This report describes the steps taken in the design and optimization of a stainless steel chemical

reactor for a catalyzed gas phase non-isothermal, non-isobaric set of two reactions. The main objectives of

this report are to determine the most viable reaction pathway available, find the best reactor type and

specifications for this reaction pathway that maximized the product of the desired product and optimize

the cost-effectiveness of the reactor using CAPCOST analysis. This analysis is to be carried out to

estimate the capital cost of building the reactor only, not the cost of the catalyst or reactants.

The reactor designed in this report is a flow reactor operating with multiple reactions. An

excel/VBA simulator was created to determine the performance of these reactors at different operating

conditions and dimensions. Case studies were also carried out to find the best operating conditions and

catalyst weight in order to find a final optimized reactor design.

In this report we analyze which kind of reactor and which operating conditions should be used to

maximize the performance of the reactor running reaction pathway 1. The justification for this is

provided in the report, but the main reason behind pathway 1 over pathway 2 was in regards to the

activation energies. The reactor type determined to be the best to accomplish this objective was the

packed bed reactor.

In conclusion, the final design used two packed bed reactors in series with diameters of 0.3556 m

and a length of 1.3555 m each we were able to produce the 100 mol/h of the desired product D. We used a

catalyst weight of 513.73 Kg and inlet flow rate of 900 mol/h of reactant A. The inlet flow rate of B was

determined based on the stoichiometric coefficients, and the inerts were held constant at 130 mol/h.

These values provided optimal conditions as well as a high overall selectivity and yield as discussed

during optimization.

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